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International Engineering Exhibits

A Violations versus Time Graphs

Violations vs Time Graphs

From California, Florida, North Carolina and Virginia, these graphs show how changing the yellow light duration changes the number of red light runners. These graphs were plotted from raw red light camera data. As you can see, once an engineer lengthens the yellow light duration, the number of red light runners decreases--overnight. In the Cary, NC graphs, you see how both the lengthening and shortening of yellow light durations result in decreases and increases, respectively, in red light running.

Not once in the history of traffic engineering has lengthening the yellow light increased red light running. Instead we always see drivers cut short by the federal yellow standard, a standard that opposes physics. It is the traffic engineers' errors and omissions in physics which cause the vast majority of red light running and crashes. The red light data shows that over 90% of red light running and crashes originates from these errors and omissions.

Aug 27, 2015
B The Yellow Change Interval:  Four Major Engineering Errors and Omissions

The Yellow Change Interval: Four Major Engineering Errors and Omissions

Every State and Canadian Province imposes a legal requirement on the engineer to "possess the knowledge of the physical and mathematical sciences, and apply that knowledge to their creative work in order to protect the life, health and welfare of the public." This paper shows how traffic engineers misapply the physical and mathematical sciences to the duration of the yellow light thus putting the life, health and welfare of the public in harm's way.

June 30, 2016
C 10 Question to a Traffic Engineer

10 Questions for a Traffic Engineer

How well does the traffic engineer understand the ITE formula? Ask a traffic engineer to take the test. Ask a city council to administer this test to its traffic engineering staff. Ask the news media to incorporate these questions into an interview with a traffic engineer. These questions are fundamental to the cause of red light running, and reveal the credibility of the traffic engineer.

Here is the key.

Nov 7, 2015
D Board of Engineers Complaint Board of Engineers Complaint - Word

Board of Engineers Cover Letter Board of Engineers Cover Letter - Word

Board of Engineers Complaint

Traffic engineers are licensed professional engineers and as such must meet legal requirements. You will find the statutes of your State require the engineer to "possess the knowledge of the mathematical and physical sciences in order to safeguard life, health and property." This is the statute the engineers break. Your Board of Engineers can discern it and has the authority to discipline traffic engineers so that they do not do it again. If engineers complied with this statute, then the red light camera industry would not exist.

A policeman, lawyer, judge or politician may be able to discern some of these problems, but from experience he will not speak out against an engineering problem regardless how obvious. He will not speak out for reasons financial, political or because he feels unworthy of making a decision outside his expertise. For this reason the Board of Engineers become essential. The Board should be a person's first stop to seek relief.

We have posted the complaint and cover letter in PDF and Word forms. This is an example of a North Carolina complaint. The checked items in the complaint are the ethics, mathematical and physical sciences violations committed collectively by North Carolina traffic engineers. (The proof for all these violations are at this web site.) Engineers of other states and provinces commit roughly the same mistakes.

A complaint to a Board of Engineers is not like a complaint you file with the Court. A complaint to the Board is easier to do and anyone can do it. It is free. The Board works for you, not the engineer. The Board's mandate is to serve the public--that's you and I. The Board does not expect you to understand engineering or physics. That's their job. Our complaint is rather unusual because we do understand.

You must direct the complaint against a specific engineer. Do not direct the complaint against a methodology. Do not complain, "You must do something about the yellow durations". The Board does not have authority over methodologies. It only has the authority over the engineer's license. That is as it should be. The Board holds engineers personally responsible for their practice. The Board judges the engineer's competence based on the mathematical and physical sciences. The engineer's methodologies better follow suit.

The Board has the authority to discipline the engineer. Disciplinary actions go on the engineer's permanent record. The Board can fine the engineer thousands of dollars. The Board can charge him with a criminal misdemeanor even for a math mistake. Repeating the math mistake is considered a felony.

Complaints in North Carolina

Nov 8, 2015
E FE Reference Manual Solution

FE Reference Handbook v9.2, Vehicle Change Intervals, p. 164

Sep 22, 2014
F FE Reference Manual Solution

FE Reference Handbook Solution

This exhibit is not the FE Reference Handbook. This exhibits shows what should appear on page 164 of v9.2 of the FE Reference Handbook.

Jul 11, 2015
G Glossary

Glossary of Traffic Engineering Terms

Jan 14, 2012
H Misapplied Physics in the International Standards Forces Drivers to Run Red Lights

Misapplied Physics in the International Standards Forces Drivers to Run Red Lights

Apr 13, 2013
I Short Yellows and Turns

Short Yellows and Turns

Sep 28, 2012
J Short Yellows and Turns Spreadsheet, English Short Yellows and Turns Spreadsheet, Metric

Calculate Your Yellow Change Interval--English, Metric

Sep 18, 2012
K Derivation of the Yellow Light Interval Equation

Derivation of the Yellow Change Interval Formula

Feb 13, 2013
L Retort to Red Light Cameras Reduce Crashes

Retort to "Red Light Cameras Reduce Crashes"

Oct 23, 2012
M ITE, IIHS, Vanasse, Hangen, Brustlin Response to Ceccarelli's Feb. 2010 Derivation of the Yellow Light Interval Equation

ITE, IIHS, Vanasse, Hangen, Brustlin Response to Ceccarelli's Feb. 2010 Derivation of the Yellow Light Interval Equation

Apr 29, 2012
N Institute of Transportation Engineers Authority in Question

Institute of Transportation Engineers Authority in Question

Sep 12, 2012
O Dilemma Zone

Dilemma Zone

Jan 16, 2012
P Approach Speed vs. Speed Limit

Approach Speed vs. Speed Limit

Mar 1, 2012
Q Graphs of Cary Camera Data Showing Short Yellows Forcing People to Run Red Lights

Graphs of Cary Camera Data Showing Short Yellows Forcing People to Run Red Lights

Feb 1, 2011
R MUTCD Yellow Light Requirements

MUTCD Yellow Light Requirements, 2012

Oct 13, 2012
S MUTCD, 2012

MUTCD, 2012

Sep 12, 2012
T MUTCD--An Engineering Requirements Doc

MUTCD--Engineering Requirements Doc

Feb 4, 2017
U Steven Strength, Louisiana DOTD P.E. Interview

Steven Strength, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, P.E., ITE Certified Traffic Engineer

Aug 6, 2013
V Engineering vs Reality Chart

Engineering vs Reality Chart, Steven Strength

Apr 19, 2013
W Red light Camera Available Raw Data Feed

Traffic Signal and Red light Camera Data Required for Analysis

Jan 6, 2016
X Decisions as We Approach an Intersection

Decisions as We Approach an Intersection

May 24, 2015

 

Newton's Laws

P1

Isaac Newton's Principia, Latin (1687)

Dec 9, 2012
P2

Isaac Newton's Principia, English Translation (1846)

Dec 9, 2012
P3

Newton's Laws Explained by Walter Lewin, MIT (1999)

Right-click, "Save Target As . . ."

Dec 9, 2012
P4 The Kinematic Equations for Straight Line Motion with Constant Acceleration

The Kinematic Equations for Straight Line Motion with Constant Acceleration, 1977

Sep 8, 2012

 

Papers

, 2002 , 2002
PA

Abstract - Misapplied Physics in the International Standards Forces Drivers to Run Red Lights, 2012

Aug 7, 2012
PB Misapplied Physics in the International Standards Forces Drivers to Run Red Lights

Misapplied Physics in the International Standards Forces Drivers to Run Red Lights, 2013

Oct 20, 2015
PC The Problem of the Amber Signal Light in Traffic Flow

The Problem of the Amber Signal Light in Traffic Flow, 1959

Sep 12, 2011
PD The Problem of the Amber Signal Light in Traffic Flow

The Problem of the Amber Signal Light in Traffic Flow--Authors' Biographies

Jan 13, 2013
PE A-Review-Of-The-Yellow-Interval-Dilemma

A-Review-Of-The-Yellow-Interval-Dilemma, Liu, Herman, Gazis--1995

Jul 23, 2013
PF Determination of Left Turn Yellow Change and Red Clearance Interval

Determination of Left Turn Yellow Change and Red Clearance Interval, 2002

Jun 30, 2013
PG Traffic Signal Change Intervals: Policy, Practices, and Safety

Traffic Signal Change Intervals: Policy, Practices, and Safety, IIHS 1986

Jan 26, 2013
PH Traffic Engineering Handbook, 1965

Traffic Engineering Handbook, 1965

Feb 4, 2010
PI Transportation and Traffic Engineering Handbook, 1982

Transportation and Traffic Engineering Handbook, 1982

Oct 17, 2012
PJ Traffic Engineering Handbook, 1999

Traffic Engineering Handbook, 1999

Dec 2, 2009
PK Traffic Engineering Handbook (Yellow Light Formula)

Traffic Engineering Handbook (Yellow Light Formula), 2010

Sep 13, 2010
PL Traffic Engineering Handbook (Yellow Light Formula)

Traffic Engineering Handbook (Yellow Light Formula), 2016

May 26, 2016
PM Traffic Engineering Handbook (Approach Speed)

Traffic Engineering Handbook (Approach Speed), 2010

Sep 18, 2012
PN Speedometer +/- 5 mph

Speedometer +/- 5 mph, CFR 49 III (2011)

49 CFR III Sec 393.82 allows a speedometer to have an accuracy to +/- 5 mph. If a vehicle is travelling down a road with a posted speed limit of 50 mph but the speedometer reads 55 mph, this opens a 24 foot type I dilemma zone for the driver for straight-through unimpeded movement. The driver can unintentionally run the red light by 0.3 seconds--time enough to trip the red light camera.

Sep 5, 2014
PO Traffic Engineering Handbook (Perception-Reaction Time)

Traffic Engineering Handbook (Perception-Reaction Time), 2010

Sep 13, 2010
PP Traffic Engineering Handbook (Dilemma Zone)

Traffic Engineering Handbook (Dilemma Zone), 2010

Sep 13, 2010
PQ Traffic Engineering Handbook (Maximum Dilemma)

Traffic Engineering Handbook (Maximum Dilemma), 2010

Sep 13, 2010
PR Traffic Signal Timing Manual (Yellow Light Formula)

Traffic Signal Timing Manual (Yellow Light Formula), 2009

Sep 13, 2010
PS The Dilemma with Dilemma Zones

The Dilemma with Dilemma Zones

Sep 15, 2011
PT NCHRP 731: Guilelines for Traffic Signal Timing

NCHRP 731 Guidelines for Timing Yellow and All-Red Intervals at Signalized Intersections, 2010

Written by world's premier red light camera proponents (except for Timothy Gates who did not know his name was going on this report), this report is the embodiment of incompetence and corruption. The science does not get any worse.

Within this document one finds 1) misapplication of a physics equation, 2) misapplication of stochastic methods to perception-reaction and vehicle deceleration, omission of the computation of engineering tolerances, the supposition that analytic solutions are physical solutions, and the purposeful intent to make drivers run red lights by assuming drivers are travelling less than the legal speed limit.

For an explanation of how NCHRP 731 is the embodiment of pseudo-science and engineering malpractice, compare with Yellow Change and All-Red Clearance Equations of Physics.

Oct 15, 2015
PU Dilemma Zone Driver Behavior, Vehicle Type, Platooning

Dilemma Zone Driver Behavior as a Function of Vehicle Type, Time of Day and Platooning, 2010

This recent study by Timothy Gates is a one-stop shopping resource for perception-reaction times and vehicle decelerations. The conclusions in this paper are consistent with decades of previous studies. The thing to learn is that perception-reaction time and deceleration are ranges of equally valid values. There are not single value which can be reduced to an average.

Just as it is improper for a bridge engineer to design a bridge to only withstand a vehicle of average weight, it is improper for a traffic engineer to plug into the yellow change interval formula averages for perception-reaction time and deceleration.

 

Oct 13, 2015
PV Determining Vehicle Signal Change Intervals

Determining Vehicle Signal Change Intervals, 1994

In the last paragraph on page 5, ITE tells the engineer to set his yellow change intervals so that an acceptable percentage of drivers will run red lights. Local standards define acceptable. To our dismay, traffic engineers actually believe that there such a thing as an acceptable. In previous versions of this paper, 1 to 3% is acceptable. In all versions of this paper, ITE acknowledges that engineers are in control of the percentage of drivers running red lights and so instructs engineers to lengthen the yellow change interval to decrease the percentage. Yet ITE closes its eyes to the legal consequences of the implied reverse: shorting the yellow knowingly producing a high-though-acceptable rate of red light runners.

This version of the paper suggests to the engineer to use law enforcement as a substitute for engineering. This suggestion violates every State law for professional engineers. States mandate professional engineers to safeguard life, health and property, not to knowingly put them at risk.

This version of the paper omits the statement that the ITE yellow change interval may not be appropriate for left turn lanes. The more current the paper, the more inaccurate the statements regarding the meaning of the formula.

PW Determining Vehicle Signal Change Intervals, 1989

Determining Vehicle Signal Change Intervals, 1989

On the top of page 30, ITE tells the engineer to set his yellow change intervals so that an acceptable percentage of drivers will run red lights. In this version of the paper, 1% to 3% defines acceptable as if there is such a thing as acceptable. ITE acknowledges that engineers are in control of the percentage of drivers running red lights and so instructs engineers to decrease the percentage by lengthening the yellow change interval. But ITE closes its eyes to the legal consequences of the implied reverse: shorting the yellow knowingly producing a high percentage of red light runners.

In this version of the paper, ITE does not suggest to use law enforcement. ITE just does not care what happens.

In the middle of page 29, this paper correctly acknowledges that the ITE formula may be inappropriate for protected left turn yellows.

At the end of page 29, this version correctly defines the appropriate yellow change interval as the time it takes the vehicle to traverse the stopping distance required by the reasonable driver.

Feb 26, 2014
PX Determining Vehicle Change Intervals, 1985

Determining Vehicle Change Intervals, 1985

This is the original Determining paper. The farther back in time one gets, the more accurate the understand of the ITE yellow change interval formula.

At the top of page 6, this paper correctly acknowledges that the ITE formula may be inappropriate for protected left turn yellows.

In the middle of page 6, this version correctly defines the appropriate yellow change interval as the time it takes the vehicle to traverse the stopping distance required by the reasonable driver.

But in the middle of page 6, ITE also tells the engineer to set his yellow change intervals so that an acceptable percentage of drivers will run red lights. In this version of the paper, 1% to 3% defines acceptable as if there is such a thing as acceptable.ITE acknowledges that engineers are in control of the percentage of drivers running red lights and so instructs engineers to decrease the percentage by lengthening the yellow change interval. But ITE closes its eyes to the legal consequences of the implied reverse: shorting the yellow knowingly producing a high percentage of red light runners.

In this version of the paper, ITE does not suggest to use law enforcement. ITE just does not care what happens.

 

Feb 26, 2014
PY Yellow Change Interval Origin of Grade, ITE 1982

Yellow Change Interval Origin of Grade, ITE 1982

Jun 20, 2015
PZ Perception-Reaction Times, AASHTO 2004

Perception-Reaction Times, AASHTO 2004

Nov 5, 2012
PAA Perception-Reaction Times, AASHTO 2011

Perception-Reaction Times, AASHTO 2011

Apr 9, 2014
PAB Perception-Reaction Times, Oregon State University

Perception-Reaction Times, Oregon State University, 1997

Sep 14, 2012
PAC Forsenic Aspects of Driver Perception and Response, Olson, 2010

Forsenic Aspects of Driver Perception and Response, Olson, 2010

Nov 23, 2014
PAD Deceleration Rates, University of Wisconsin

Deceleration Rates, University of Wisconsin, 2007

Sep 14, 2012
PAE Commercial Truck Deceleration Rates, Transportation Research Board

Commercial Truck Deceleration Rates, Transportation Research Board, 2003

Jun 4, 2013
PAF Transit Vehicles Deceleration Rates, USDOT 1977

Transit Vehicles Deceleration Rates, USDOT 1977

Nov 23, 2014
PAG Truck Air Brake Lag Times, 2009

Truck Air Brake Lag Times, 2009

Sep 25, 2012
PAH Guide for Pavement Friction NCHRP 108

Guide for Pavement Friction, 2009

Apr 9, 2014
PAI Evaluating the Use of Red Light Running Photographic Enforcement

Evaluating the Use of Red Light Running Photographic Enforcement, 2004

Oct 2, 2012
PAJ Retort to Evaluating the Use of Red Light Running

Retort to "Evaluating the Use of Red Light Running . . ."

Oct 23, 2012
PAK IIHS February 2011

IIHS Effect of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Fatal Crashes, 2011

Aug 27, 2014
PAL Cameras do not Reduce Crashes - Testimonies from City Officials

Cameras do not Reduce Crashes - Testimonies from City Officials

Aug 27, 2014
PAM Before/After Studies - Deceit and Pseudoscience

Before/After Studies - Deceit and Pseudoscience

Feb 4, 2017
PAN Comparing Red Light Running to Crashes

Comparing Red Light Running to Crashes

Feb 4, 2017
PAO Scientific Method

The Scientific Method, Prentice Hall North Carolina 6th Grade Textbook

Aug 7, 2016
PAP Ireland Traffic Signs Manual

Ireland Traffic Signs Manual

In 9.2.3, Ireland sets all yellow durations to 3.0 seconds. The error is based on using emergency stopping distances instead of safe and comfortable stopping distances.

Oct 13, 2014
PAQ ITE International Convention 2015 - Agenda

ITE International Convention 2015 - Agenda, Florida

Panelists in the Traffic Signals Timing discussion were Richard Retting, Beverly Kuhn and Brian Ceccarelli.

Kuhn spoke about the history of the recommended practice document but did not say anything about signal timings.

Retting pushed his NCHRP 731 report which does everything an engineer should not. NCHRP 731 applies physics equations to traffic movements the equations contradict, misapplies stochastic methods to non-random events (taking averages of p-r time and deceleration), sets stopping distances so that legally-moving traffic does not have the distance to stop, and omits engineering tolerances inherant in the computation of the yellow change interval.

Ceccarelli read a letter by the inventor of ITE's yellow change interval equation, Dr. Alexei Maraudin. Maradudin condemned ITE's misquoting of him in its proposed Traffic Signal Timings Guide and every one of Retting's points in NCHRP 731. Ceccarelli followed up the reading with an explanation of the physics behind the equation, the proper application of stochastic techniques and the concept of engineering tolerances, which traffic engineers did not know applied.

At the convention it appeared that Retting is ITE's choosen traffic signal timing spokesman. Retting's appearance in such a panel is problematic. Retting 1) does not understand basic physics, 2) calls himself an engineer, is not an engineer by license or education, and offers his engineering directly to the public, and 3) is the father of the red light camera industry in America--a lobbyist for Redflex--a conflict of interest.

Jan 12, 2016
PAR Power Point on the Physics of the Yellow Change Interval

Physics of the Yellow Change Interval

ITE International Convention, Florida 2015

Nov 13, 2015
PAS Autonomous Vehicles Symposium 2016

Autonomous Vehicles Symposium Agenda, 2016

June 10, 2016
PAT Yellow Change Interval-Physics in Opposition

Yellow Change Interval -- Physics in Opposition

Autonomous Vehicles Symposium; Stuttart, Germany 2016

May 28, 2016
PAU Engineering Core Principles

Engineering Core Principles

Aug 3, 2016
PAV Majority Leader Report

Majority Leader Report -- The Red Light Running Crisis -- Is it Intentional?, 2001

Oct 18, 2015
PAW IIHS Effect of Turning Off RLCs

IIHS - Effect of Turning Off RLCs, 2016

Aug 1, 2016